Mexico's 1921 Census
A unique perspective
John P. Schmal
In the aftermath of the Mexican revolution, Mexico's Departamento de la Estadística Nacional administered a census that would be unique among Mexico's census counts administered between 1895 and 2005. In this new census, the Mexican Government decided to ask Mexicans about their perception of their own racial heritage. In the 1921 census, residents of the Mexican Republic were asked if they fell into one of the following categories:
Published on LatinoLA: September 30, 2007
1. "Indígena pura" (of pure indigenous heritage)
2. "Indígena mezclada con blanca" (of mixed indigenous and white heritage)
3. "Blanca" (of White or Spanish heritage)
4. "Extranjeros sin distinción de razas" (Foreigners without racial distinction)
5. "Cualquiera otra o que se ignora la raza" (Either other or chose to ignore the race)
States With the Largest "Indígena Pura" Population
The results were a remarkable reflection of México's own perception of its indigenous and mestizo identities. Although only three states had more than 50% pure indigenous populations (Oaxaca, Puebla and Tlaxcala), a total of eight states had more than 40% of the same classification (Oaxaca, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Chiapas, Guerrero, Campeche, Yucatán, and México).
The five states with the largest populations of "indígena pura" were:
The Most Indigenous State: Oaxaca
The most indigenous state, in terms of absolute numbers and percentage was Oaxaca, in which 675,119 persons out of 976,005 inhabitants were classified as indígena. In effect, this meant that 69.17% of Oaxaca's population had a pure indigenous identity. Not all of the "pure indigenous" population of Oaxaca, however, spoke indigenous languages. Only 482,478 individuals five years of age or more spoke thirty indigenous languages. This represented 49.43% of the population five years of age and older and 57.18% of the entire state population. [Children up to the age of four in indigenous households were not included in the tally of languages.]
Another 274,752 residents of Oaxaca described themselves as "mezclada," representing an additional 28.1% of the population. The combination of the indigenous and mezclada categories represented 949,871 individuals who had possessed some element of indigenous descent and represented 97.32% of the entire state population. As a matter of contrast, only 13,910 persons were categorized as "blanca," while another 11,124 did not claim a designation and 1,100 were "extranjeros" (foreigners).
The Second Most Indigenous State: Puebla
The State of Puebla had the second largest "pure indigenous" population, with 560.971 (who represented 54.73% of the entire state population). In addition, 403,221 residents of Puebla were classified as mezclada, representing another 39.34% of the population. Puebla had the sixth largest number of mezclada inhabitants. Combining the pure indigenous with the mezclada element, we can estimate that 964,192 persons were of some indigenous origin, representing 94.07% of the total state population of 1,024,955.
As with Oaxaca, however, a smaller element of the population spoke native tongues. In all, 247,392 individuals five years of age and older spoke a wide range of indigenous languages, representing only 24.14% of the entire state population. Puebla had a much higher number of blanca residents: a total of 58,032 inhabitants, who made up 5.66% of the state population.
The Third Most Indigenous State: Veracruz
Veracruz has the third largest "indígena pura" population with 406,638, representing 35.06% of the state population. Veracruz also had the fourth-highest number of mezclada residents: 556,472 (or 47.97%). Combining the two indigenous classifications, we observed that 963,110 persons out of a total population of 1,110,971 claimed some indigenous descent and that this group represented 86.69% of the state population. In striking contrast, however, only 120,746 residents of Veracruz spoke indigenous languages, representing 10.87% of the state population and 12.62% of residents five years of age or more.
The Fourth Most Indigenous State: México
The State of México had the fourth largest indígena pura population, 372,703, equal to 42.13% of the state population. Together with the mestizo/mezclada population, which numbered 422,001 (47.70% of the state population), the total population with an indigenous heritage was 794,704, or 89.84% of the population. In stark contrast, only 172,863 residents of the State of México spoke indigenous languages, representing only 19.54% of the total state population.rnrnOther states with significant numbers of indígena pura population are as follows:
5. Guerrero - 248,526 persons (43.84%)
6. Hidalgo - 245,704 persons (39.49%)
7. Chiapas - 200.927 persons (47.64%)
8. Jalisco - 199,728 persons (16.76%)
9. Michoacán - 196,726 persons (20.93%)
10. Distrito Federal- 169,820 (18.75%)
11. Yucatán - 155,155 persons (43.31%)
12. San Luis Potosí - 136,365 persons (30.60%)
13. Tlaxcala - 97,670 persons (54.70%)
Because the populations of the various states vary widely, the percentage of pure indigenous persons in a given state provide us with a different set of results. The contrast between absolute numbers and percentages of the pure indigenous population was largely contingent on the population of each state. For example, Tlaxcala actually had the third largest percentage of indígena pura inhabitants but, because of its small population, was in thirteenth place in terms of percentage.
And Jalisco's largely pure indigenous population of 199,728 represented only 16.76% of its total population of 1,191,957. Jalisco, as a matter of fact, had the largest population of any state in México, followed closely by Veracruz (1,159,935), Puebla (1,024,955) and the Distrito Federal (906,063).
States With the Largest "Indígena Mezclada Con Blanca" Population
In the 1921 census, the status "Indígena Mezclada con Blanca" implied that a person was of mestizo origin. Persons classified by this identity probably did not speak Indian languages, but still felt an attachment to their indigenous roots and probably had indigenous facial features. The eight Mexican states with the largest populations of "Indígena Mezclada con Blanca" were:
1. Jalisco - 903,830 (75.83%)
2. Guanajuato - 828,724 (96.33%)
3. Michoacán - 663,391 (70.59%)
4. Veracruz - 556,472 (47.97%)
5. Distrito Federal - 496,359 (54.78%)
6. México - 422,001 (47.71%)
7. Puebla - 403,221 (39.34%)
8. Sinaloa - 335,474 (98.30%)
9. Zacatecas - 326,615 (86.10%)
10. Hidalgo - 320,250 (51.47%)
In terms of percentages, the states with the largest mezclada population were Sinaloa (98.30%), Guanajuato (96.32%), Durango (89.10%), Zacatecas (86.10%), and Querétaro (80.15%).
The State With the Largest Mezclada Population: Jalisco
As with the other classifications, the percentage of "indígena mezclada con blanca" in each state varied widely because of the level of assimilation and the states' overall population. For Jalisco, the large number of mestizos in the state was a reflection of Jalisco's mestizaje over the centuries. The combination of Jalisco's mezclada and indígena pura populations (903,830 and 199,728) indicated that 92.58% of Jalisco's total population (1,103,558 out of 1,191,957 people) had an indigenous background. In addition, 87,103 residents of Jalisco claimed to be White (7.31%).
Although the inhabitants of Jalisco had a strong link to their indigenous origins, only 195 persons in the entire state spoke indigenous languages. Two languages dominated within this small group of indigenous speakers (99 Huichol speakers and 81 Náhuatl speakers).
Guanajuato: The Second Largest Mezclada Population
Guanajuato was settled early in the colonial period and underwent mestizaje at an early date. 828,724 of Guanajuato's population of 860,364 classified themselves as indígena mezclada con blanca, representing 96.33% of the state population. Only 25,458 persons claimed pure indigenous background (representing 2.96%) of the population and another 4,687 classified themselves as blanca. In contrast, only 220 inhabitants of Guanajuato spoke indigenous languages. [All but one of these indigenous speakers spoke the Otomí tongue.]
Sinaloa: The State with the Largest Percentage of Mezclada
In the 1921 Mexican census, 335,474 persons were classified as mezclada, representing an extraordinary 98.30% of the state population. Incredibly, a mere 3,163 people (or 0.93% of the state population) identified themselves as pura indígena. The number of person classified as white was smaller yet: only 644 people out of a total state population of 341,265.
Zacatecas: A State Without Indigenous Speakers
Zacatecas posed one of the most interesting cases in this analysis. With 8.54% of its inhabitants identified as "pura indígena" and another 86.1% classified as mestizo, 94.64% of Zacatecas' inhabitants identified with their indigenous origins. At the same time, not a single inhabitant of the state claimed to speak an indigenous language. This would lead one to speculate that in some parts of México, persons who spoke Indian languages may, in fact, have denied this fact.
States With the Largest Blanca Populations
The states with the largest populations of "Blanca" or White persons were:
1. Distrito Federal - 206,514
2. Chihuahua - 145,926
3. Sonora - 115,151
4. Veracruz - 114,150
5. México - 88,660
In terms of percentage, the "blanca" classification was most prominent in these states:
1. Sonora - 41.85%
2. Chihuahua - 36.33%
3. Baja California Sur - 33.40%
4. Tabasco - 27.56%
5. District Federal - 22.79%
One of the most interesting aspects of the 1921 census is that several Mexican states contained very small numbers of Indigenous speakers but had significant populations of people who were identified as "pura indígena." Some examples of these states are:
The State of Coahuila had 44,779 individuals who were identified as "indígena pura," representing 11.38% of the state population. If you combined the pure indigenous and mestizo populations, you would recognize that 89.26% of Coahuila's population had some kind of indigenous heritage. However, in the entire state of 393,480 inhabitants, only 293 persons spoke an indigenous language. [All of these indigenous speakers spoke the Kikapóo language.]
Tamaulipas presented a similar issue. In 1921, 39,606 inhabitants of the state were recognized as of pure indigenous background, representing 13.80% of the population. The combined "indígena pura" and mestizo population was calculated at 83.16%. However, in the entire state only 237 persons spoke more than 15 indigenous languages, of which only one (Huasteca) was actually native to the State.
San Luis Potosí
San Luis Potosí, with large indigenous areas in its eastern regions, boasted a total "indígena pura" population of 136,365, which represented 30.6% of the state population. With a mestizo population tallied at 61.88%, the combined percentage of persons with some indigenous origins was 92.48%. However, only 1,738 inhabitants of the state claimed to speak one of the state's six indigenous languages (Huasteco, Mayo, Mazateco, Náhuatl, Otomí and Totonaco).
© 2007, John P. Schmal. All rights reserved.
Departamento de la Estadística Nacional, "Annuario de 1930" (Tacubaya, D.F., Mexico, 1932), pp. 40, 48.
The 1921 census figures for each state were published in individual volumes by state. Each volume was published by the Departamento de la Estadística Nacional between 1927 and 1929 under the titles of "Resumen del Censo General de Habitantes de 30 de Noviembre de 1921."
Please see the following link for a table illustrating the indigena and mezclada elements of each state in the 1921 census:
John P. Schmal:
John Schmal is the author of "The Journey to Latino Political Representation," which is available as item S4114 at http://heritagebooks.com.